The origin of Halloween dates back to the traditions of people who lived in Gaul and the islands of Great Britain between the years 600 BC and 800 AD, although with marked differences from the current pumpkins or the famous phrase "Trick or Treat", exported by United States of America, which popularized the celebration. Originally, Halloween was not related to witches. It was a festival of Ireland's Celtic calendar, the festival of Samhain, celebrated between October 30 and November 2 and marked the end of summer (Samhain literally means "end of summer" in the Celtic language).
The celebration of Halloween has two sources that in the course of history have mingling:
The pagan origin has to do with the Celtic celebration called Samhain, which was meant to worship the dead. The invasion of the British Isles by the Romans (46 BC) ended up mixing the Latin culture with Celtic, with the latter eventually waned with time. At the end of the century, with the evangelization of these territories, the religion of the Celts, called Druidism, had already disappeared in most communities. Little is known about the religion of the Druids, because it was not written anything about it: everything was transmitted orally from generation to generation. You know that the festival of Samhain was celebrated quite possibly between 5 and November 7 (half way between the summer equinox and winter solstice). They were preceded by a series of celebrations that lasted a week, and they proceeded to the Celtic new year. The "feast of the dead" was one of its most important dates, as celebrated what for us would be "heaven and earth" (concepts that only came with Christianity). To the Celts, the place of the dead was a place of perfect happiness, where there would be no hunger or pain. The festival was celebrated with rites presided over by the Druid priests, who acted as mediums between people and their ancestors. It was also said that the spirits of the dead returned on that date to visit their old homes and lead their families into the other world.
From the fourth century the Church of SíUCSA1ria devoted a day to celebrate "All Martyrs". Three centuries later, Pope Boniface IV († 615) became a Roman temple dedicated to all gods (pantheon) in a Christian church and dedicated it to "All Saints", to all those who preceded us in faith. The feast in honor of All Saints, was originally celebrated on May 13, but Pope Gregory III († 741) changed the date to November 1, which was the day of the dedication of the Chapel of All Saints Basilica of St. Peter's in Rome. Later in the year 840, Pope Gregory IV ordered that the feast of All Saints was celebrated universally. How big party, it also won his evening celebration or wake, which prepares a feast the day before (October 31). In the English translation, this vigil was called All Hallow's Eve (Vigil of All Saints), then the forms and All Hallowed Eve "All Hallow Een" until you reach the actual word "Halloween."
Since, between the setting sun on October 31 and November 1, there was a holy night (hallow evening, in English), it is believed that this would rise to the current name of the party: Hallow Evening -- > Hallowe'en -> Halloween. Quickly follows that the term "Halloween" is not used by English-speaking peoples, and this is just a description of the people speaking (official) Portuguese.
Another hypothesis is that the Catholic Church has tried to eliminate the pagan festival of Samhain introducing restrictions on the eve of All Saints. This day would be known in English-speaking countries as All Hallows' Eve
The ratio of the celebration of this date with the witches themselves have begun in the Middle Ages following the persecutions instigated by political and religious leaders, and trials conducted by the Inquisition, in order to convict the men and women who were considered healers and / or pagan . All who were the target of such suspicions were so-called wizards or witches with high negative and pejorative sense, to be judged by the Courts of the Inquisition and, in most cases, burned at the stake in autos-called faith.
This designation has been perpetuated and the celebration of Halloween, brought to the United States by Irish immigrants (people of Celtic culture and ethnicity) in the nineteenth century was well known as "Halloween," a historical legend.
If you look at how Halloween is celebrated today, we see that has little to do with its origins: it remains an allusion to the dead, but with a completely different character than it had at the outset. Moreover, it was gradually being incorporated into a series of foreign elements as the feast of All Souls and the All Saints.
Among the elements added, we have for example the custom of "disguises", quite possibly born in France between the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. At that time, Europe was plagued by the Black Death (bubonic plague), which wiped out nearly half the population of the continent, creating among Catholics a great fear and preoccupation with death. Multiplied to the Masses on the feast of All Souls and produced many artistic performances that reminded people of his own mortality, some of these representations were known as the death dance or dance macabre.
Some of the faithful, endowed with a mind more ludicrous, used to adorn the eve of the feast of All Souls the walls of cemeteries with pictures of the devil pulling a line of people to the tomb: popes, kings, queens, knights, monks, peasants, lepers, etc. . (after all, death does not respect anyone.) Were also made representations scenic, with people dressed as famous people and embody even death, to which everyone should get. Possibly the tradition of asking for a sweet, threatened to make a treat (trick or treat, trick-or-treat "), originated in England, the period of persecution against Protestant Catholics (1500 1700). During this period, the English Catholics were deprived of their legal rights and could not exercise any public office. In addition, they imposed fines, high taxes and even imprisonment. Celebrating the Mass was punishable by the death penalty and hundreds of priests were martirizados.Produto this persecution was the attempt to assassinate the Protestant King George I. The plan, known as the Gunpowder Plot ( "Gunpowder Plot"), was to blow up Parliament, killing the king, and thus initiate an uprising of the oppressed Catholics. The plot was discovered on November 5, 1605, when a Catholic convert named Guy Fawkes was caught storing gunpowder in his house, and was hanged soon after. Soon the date has become a major feast in England (which continues today) many Protestants would celebrate by wearing masks and visiting the homes of Catholics to demand their beer and pies, telling them: trick or treat (sweet or treat). Later, the commemoration of Guy Fawkes came to America brought the first settlers, who moved to Oct. 31, joining with the Halloween party, which was introduced into the country by immigrants irlandeses.Vemos therefore that the current celebration of Halloween is the product mix of many traditions brought by settlers in the eighteenth century to the United States and built there a particular way in their culture. Many of them have been forgotten in Europe.
New elements of Halloween
The celebration of October 31 - quite possibly because of its origin as a feast of the Druids - has been recently promoted by various groups "neo pagans", and in some cases even assumed the character of occult and satanic celebration. Hollywood contributes to this with several films, among which stands out the Halloween series, in which violence and killing plastics end up creating in the viewer a state of anguish and anxiety. Many of these films, despite the restrictions of view, end up being viewed by children, causing them fear and misconception of realidade.A connection with the celebration of evil and the occult is also proven by the fact that on the night of 31 take place in October in Ireland, the United States, Mexico and many other countries black masses and other meetings on this tipo.Na celebration of Halloween, we note the presence of many of these elements. The costumes, decorations and other items sold at this party are filled with witches, black cats, vampires, ghosts and all sorts of horrible monsters, which sometimes even have truly satanic connotations.
The lantern plant called "Jack O'Lantern" in English, in Portuguese called coca in Portugal and Pumpkin of Halloween in Brazil and is an ancestral tradition.
• Coca: bogeyman; empty pumpkin (or pot) with holes representing the eyes and mouth with a light inside, to frighten people at night; witch. • Priberam.Língua Portuguesa On-Line.
The night of witches, or nights of witchcraft, is a tradition almost forgotten Montalegre held in Vilar de Partridges and Fridays at 13 days.
The celebration begins with a supper of witches which is served in a broth of nettles and other dishes. The following is a ritual in which it is a prayer "With this lift spoons this flames light, that looks like part of Hell. Flee away witches'
Then follows the "great burning of witches", which prepares and serves up a magic-based spirits heated cauldron called "burning of the Other World." While the potion in the cauldron is heated reads as exorcism:
"Frogs and witches, and mouchos crujir, demonho, imps and Dianha, Spirtos eneboadas beigas of crows, magpies and gentle, the spells mezinheiras, errant fire of rotten handed bored, little light of errant animals, light penantes dead, evil eye , black inveija, dead air, and lightning Trevões, shrill moucho, sinful bad language married woman cum belho home. Vade retro Satan pras cagadeiras rocks! "
Two other magical drinks prepared and served during the "great burning of witches" are the "Wine blessed by the Devil" and "Liquor Stand Pau.
The celebration of the fire goes back more than fifty years old and comes from "[n] a ritual that was done in the winters to cure colds, catarrh, colds. Chimera was brandy in a saucepan. And since there was no electric light, but only by candlelight, everyone enjoyed with the guys that our dismal yellowish suggested, faces unearthed, the witch, "the priest of the Lord of Partridges.